ジャンピエロ・ヴェンチュリーニ/Gianpiero・Venturini(Itinerant Office)

環境意識や社会構造の変化と共に、建築に求められる役割や建築家のあり方は日々変化しています。ヨーロッパは、その変化の先鋒ともいえます。建築の調査プラットフォーム・メディア「NEW GENERATIONS」のキュレーター、チーフエディターを務め、各国の若手建築家を取材してきたジャンピエロ・ヴェンチュリーニ氏に、ヨーロッパの建築界で注目を集める潮流について、事例と共に執筆いただきます。(編) With the changing environmental consciousness and societal structures, the roles demanded in architecture and the ways of being an architect are evolving daily. Europe can be considered at the forefront of these changes. Gianpiero Venturini, curator and chief editor of an architectural research platform and media-"NEW GENERATIONS", who has interviewed emerging architects from various countries, will provide insight into the trends garnering attention in the European architectural scene, accompanied by case studies.

To re-use, instead of demolishing, is a common trend in Europe and a growing number of emerging architects are adapting existing structures for new purposes, breathing new life into old spaces. Adaptive Reuse is becoming an increasingly relevant and complex topic in Europe, as it brings together a diverse community of stakeholders who, in the past decade, have contributed to a series of successful interventions in the field of re-appropriation of abandoned and neglected areas.

This phenomenon finds its roots in the economic global crisis of 2008 that forced architects, municipalities, and other experts to find new solutions for those areas that have lost their original function. Peripheral and central areas alike, public buildings like theatres, swimming pools, offices, malls; projects that remained uncompleted due to lack of economic resources, or simply buildings from the past, even those without any particular historic value that, due to their favourable position, have acquired the interest of new investors. Although in an initial phase, many of these initiatives arise informally, without any awareness of the local policies or a very specific long-term plan, some become virtuous examples of a phenomenon that, in recent years, has become more common, and can be defined using terms ranging from urban re-activation, adaptive reuse, placemaking, grass-roots projects, bottom-up interventions, and so on. These terms have entered our lexicon and become widely disseminated.

Reusing existing structures is increasingly replacing demolition, which was previously a common trend in architecture when developers, architects, or other stakeholders were either not required or not interested in reducing the environmental impact of construction.
Today, we are gradually adapting to new realities: finite resources, costly buildings, and the nature of investment is critical. The new generation of architects seem to be more sensitive to these themes that implicate a more responsible approach, not only towards the planet or in response to the scarcity of the natural resources, but also toward the local communities who might benefit from these interventions.

その最も重要な事例は、建築事務所・ZUS(Zones Urbaines Sensibles)が着手した再活性化プロセスである、オランダ、ロッテルダムの「シーブロック・ビルディング」fig.1のアダプティヴ・リユースだ。プロジェクトが進められた20年の間に、ZUSは「シーブロック」を恒久的仮設性(パーマネント・テンポラリティ)のコンセプトを検証するためのオープン・ラボラトリーとして活用してきた。そのコンセプトは、「そこではレンガやモルタル、そして人びとが決して完成することなく適応し続ける、終わりなく変容する都市の理論」エルマ・ヴァン・ボクセル、クリスティアン・コールマン著『City of Permanent Temporality』(nai publishers、www.zus.cc/books/city-of-permanent-temporality)である。恒久的仮設性のアイデアに基づき、プロジェクトは都市の進化の特徴と既存の形態から、新しいまちづくりの方法を提示した。2011年、ロッテルダムで計画されていた中央地区の開発中止が発表され、その結果、既存のオフィス空間の多くが空いたままとなった。そこでZUSは、この問題を自分たちの手で解決することにした。恒久的仮設性のコンセプトを検証するために、かつてオフィスビルであった「シーブロック」を使い、クリエイティブな起業家のためのハブとして機能する都市の実験室とした。デパンダンスと呼ばれる1階には地元のサステナブル・ショップ、バー、インフォメーションセンター、その他のアクティビティ、2階にはコワーキングスペース、屋上にはヨーロッパ初の都市型農園「ダカカー」があり、持続可能な開発の見本となっている。恒久的仮設性というコンセプトは、建物とそのさまざまなスペースが容易に変形し、柔軟な機能を担保するために使用されることを意味し、「シーブロック」を変容する有機体としている。
A prime example of this is the adaptive reuse of “the Schieblock building” fig.1in Rotterdam, Netherlands, a reactivation process initiated by the architectural firm ZUS[Zones Urbaines Sensibles]. During the course of the last two decades, ZUS used “the Schieblock” as an open laboratory to test the concept of permanent temporality, “a theory for a city that is in continuous transformation, where bricks & mortar and people continue to adapt, without ever being complete”City of Permanent Temporality, Elma van Boxel, Kristian Koreman, nai publishers, www.zus.cc/books/city-of-permanent-temporality. Based on the idea of Permanent Temporality, this intervention introduces a new way of city-making using the city’s evolutionary character and existing forms as a starting point. When in 2011 it was announced that a planned development in Rotterdam, the Central District, had been cancelled, many existing office spaces were left vacant as a result. ZUS then decided to take matters into their own hands. They used a former office building, the Schieblock, to test the concept of Permanent Temporality, a city laboratory that acts as a hub for creative entrepreneurs. With its ground floor called Depandance, hosting a local sustainable store, a bar, an information centre, and other activities, its co-working at the second floor, and its rooftop field (DakAkker), Europe’s first urban farming roof, it has become an example for sustainable development and knowledge exchange. The concept of Permanent Temporality implies that the building and its different spaces could be easily transformed and used to host flexible functions, making the Schieblock as an organism in transformation.

The reactivation of “the Schieblock” was the initial step of a virtuous process that brought to the realisation of a series of satellite projects such as “the Luchtsingel bridge”fig.2fig.3 (one of the first public infrastructures in the world built through a crowdfunding campaign), and “the Hofplein Station Roof Park”, which positively impacts the surrounding area and its residents.

Another representative example of this concept was promoted in 2017 by Freek Persyn, founder of 51N4E: the reactivation process of “the World Trade Centre (WTC)” in Brussels, Belgium, a business district developed in the late 1970sfig.4. To build this complex of buildings, an entire residential neighbourhood was demolished. In 2017, 51N4E reached an agreement with building owner Befimmo and Up4North, a non-profit association that united eight local building owners to transform the building into a temporary testing ground for new forms of engagement that involved architects, artists, developers, and other usersInterview with Freek Persyn and Dieter Leyssen of 51N4E and Dag Boutsen of KU Leuven’s Faculty of Architecture by Isabelle Doucet: www.51n4e.com/reflections/education-from-inside-out.

都市空間の再活性化を巡る議論には、いまだ完全には理論的な実践に結びついていない新たなモデルが関わることが多く、それに呼応するかたちで実験的なストラテジーや手法を用いるイニシアチブが少なくない。そして、極めて興味深いことに、そのことが、本質的には「非公式なものの体系化」に繋がる変化をもたらしている。これらの非公式な活動は、草の根の伝統の例証である。それらはボトムアップで開発が進められ、ごく普通の市民、一般的な組織や団体、企業、自主的に組織されたさまざまなコミュニティなどに支えられているヴェンチュリーニ.G、ヴェネゴニ.C.『Re-Act: Tools for Urban Re-Activation』(「New Generations」、2014年、www.itinerantoffice.com/projects/re-act-tools-for-urban-re-activation)。建築家という職能を開かれたものにし、建築家は「デウス・エクス・マキナ」としてすべてをまとめる存在であるという固定観念を打破するために、自らの知識と自らの意志でこのプロセスに加わっている建築家やデザイナーの貢献もあり、非公式であったものが公式なものになりつつある。
Discussing urban space reactivation often involves new models that are not yet fully connected to theoretical practice, and, as a response, a number of initiatives employing more experimental strategies and methodologies have resulted in, quite interestingly, essentially a “systematisation of the informal”. These informal practices exemplify the grassroots tradition: being developed from the bottom-up and supported by everyday citizens, associations, cooperatives, and other self-organised communitiesRe-Act: Tools for Urban Re-Activation (Venturini, G, Venegoni, C., 2014, New Generations): www.itinerantoffice.com/projects/re-act-tools-for-urban-re-activation . The informal is becoming formal—also thanks to architects and designers who are contributing to this process with their knowledge and their willingness to democratise the profession and break away from the stereotype of the architect as a “Deus ex Machina”.

In Italy, the architecture collective Orizzontale was among the first in Europe to understand the potential of engaging communities in the design process. In their first professional decade, they completed a range of projects such as small pavilions, playgrounds, or temporary buildings, often realised through co-design processes involving inhabitants, architecture students, firms, and specialists like sociologists, researchers, and academics.

The research conducted by Orizzontale recently translated into the urban experiment “Prossima Apertura” realised in Toscanini neighbourhood in Aprilia (Lazio, Italy), for the reactivation of the area in multiple phasesfig.5fig.6. “The process aims to create a complete but unfinished space, where indeterminacy is its strongest point” , through the direct involvement of the local inhabitants. The final result was a new public space divided in three main areas that provides new functions such as green areas, accessibility, meeting points, sports and leisure Orizzontale, www.prossimaapertura.orizzontale.org/en, 2019.

Orizzontale was also involved in the project “Casa di BelMondofig.7, coordinated by La Rivoluzione delle SeppieLa Rivoluzione delle Seppie, non-profit cultural association formed by an active group of young international professionals operating in Calabria: www.larivoluzionedelleseppie.org, transforming an old monastery in Belmonte Calabro (Cosenza, Italy), into a multifunctional space. Through the involvement of students, designers, migrants, academics, local inhabitants and other experts, is undergoing reactivation through micro-interventions begun in 2019, aimed at transforming the building into an informal, hybrid cultural and educational centre for marginalised areas.

Spontaneous initiatives, once largely disregarded, are now setting an inspirational precedent for many cities worldwide, each assuming the role of establishing new models for urban reactivation, which in turn provides novel and innovative economic solutions, as well as an entrepreneurial model for a new generation. Projects such as “the Schieblock”, “the Luchtsingel”, “Prossima Apertura”, or “Casa di BelMondo”, have been an inspiration for other formal or informal collectives, who have been gathering experience in multiple contexts: Assemble (United Kingdom), Collectif Etc (France), Rotor (Belgium), materialnomaden (Austria), Ateliermob (Portugal), … are just a few of a long list of collectives that are further developing this concept contributing to the reactivation of abandoned areas.



2006年ミラノ工科大学卒業/2021年同大学で博士号取得/2007年〜、FABRICations、隈研吾建築都市設計事務所などに勤務/2011年Itinerant Office設立/2013年建築調査プラットフォーム・メディア「NEW GENERATIONS」設立


「シーブロック・ビルディング」。手前の陸橋は「ルフトシンゲル橋」。クラウドファンディングによって実現した初のインフラ施設。「シーブロック・ビルディング」、「デルフトセホフ」と「ポンペンブルク公園」を連続させ、都市空間を歩行者に取り戻した。/撮影:Ossip van Duivenbode

“Schieblock” and “Luchtsingel”. The bridge “Luchtsingel” in front of the project . It is the first public infrastructure realised through crowdfunding. It gives the area back to pedestrians and links the “Schieblock '' to the “Delftsehof '' and the “Pompenburg Park ''. /Photo by Ossip van Duivenbode

「ルフトシンゲル橋」鳥瞰。/撮影:Ossip van Duivenbode

「シーブロック・ビルディング」と「ルフトシンゲル橋」のアクソメダイアグラム。/提供:Gianpiero Venturini

Eye view of “Luchtsingel Bridge”. /Photo by Ossip van Duivenbode

Axonometric diagram of “Schieblock” and “Luchtsingel”. /Coutersy of Gianpiero Venturini

「World Trade Centre (WTC)」正面の公共スペース。プロジェクトの実現に先立ち、関心を高めるために市民がさまざまなイベントを行った。/撮影:Photo by Alexis Gicart

”World Trade Centre (WTC)”. The public space in front of the WTC. Before the realisation of the project, citizens got involved in a series of public events to raise awareness./Photo by Alexis Gicart

「プロッシマ・アペルトゥーラ」のプロジェクトのひとつである「ザ・オアシス」。木製の歩道で構成され、市民が足を止めるように、豊かな植栽や水場を配した新しい都市空間を創出。/撮影:Alessandro Vitali

「プロッシマ・アペルトゥーラ」のプロジェクトのひとつである「ザ・リング」。さまざまな色や素材を使ったスポーツやゲームのためのスペース。/撮影:Alessandro Vitali

“Prossima Apertura”. The part of the project “The Oasis”. It consists of wooden walkways, creating a new urban space full of vegetation and irrigation to entice citizens to pause./Photo by Alessandro Vitali

“Prossima Apertura”. The part of the project “The ring”. The space designed by different colours and materials for game and sports./Photo by Alessandro Vitali

「カーサ・ディ・ベルモンド」。常に進化を続けるオープンラボ。公共イベントやサマーワークショップなど、さまざまな市民活動の場になっている。/撮影:Antonio D'Agostino

“Casa di BelMondo”. It is an open laboratory in constant evolution, hosting public activities, summer workshops and other activities that engage citizens./Photo by Antonio D'Agostino

fig. 14

fig. 1 (拡大)

fig. 2